Tag Archives: Psalm 89

On having faith: Part 3 (Practical suggestions for use in pastoral care)

(This is part 3, which means that you should read parts 1 & 2 first if you haven’t yet.)

And so we come to the conclusion of this series.  I hope you had a great Christmas season (unless you’re Orthodox, in which case I hope your preparation is coming together nicely) and a fun New Year.

So far I’ve attempted to debunk three inappropriate views of Christian faith (part 1) and have presented an appropriate biblical theology of faith (part 2).  Now, let’s see if I can make the rubber hit the road.

No church escapes the devastating, painful, and heart-wrenching experience of watching a fellow brother or sister in Christ suffer, whether it be from disease, death, or any other sort of tragedy.  That the local church, being a faith-based community, chooses to engage suffering people in discussions concerning the idea of faith comes as no surprise.  The Church, as is typically understood, has a mission to help people know and experience God through faith.  Sadly, suffering individuals, and the family and friends that surround them, are often presented with misrepresentations of faith.  Conveyed in these misrepresentations are implicit beliefs and images concerning God that are terribly inconsistent with Scripture.  Misguided ideas of faith create a misrepresentation of God, and this equation rarely helps a suffering individual know God more.  This is a problem.

Considering the findings in part two of this series, the ultimate goal of pastoral ministry as it relates to helping people and their families in the midst of suffering is not to help people acquire more faith.  Rather, the role of a pastor must be to help people know God.  In the experience and journey of knowing God a person will find faith; they will find the trustworthiness, faithfulness, fidelity, commitment, steadfast love, compassion, grace, kindness, patience, and mercy of God.  It is in discovering and experiencing those characteristics of God that faith is born: the kind of faith that “gives a horizon in which problems are not ultimate and the response of hope, thanks and praise is most appropriate” (1).  The more a person knows God, the more he or she will realize how much God can be trusted to be who He will be and to adhere to His promises.

Here, then, are several suggestions for use in pastoral ministry to the suffering.

First, allow for people to question God.  These are questions directed at God, not the pastor.  Though some pastors incorrectly believe that they are capable of knowing all the reasons why a person might suffer, a pastor must not feel compelled to, or that they can, provide answers to a suffering person’s questions.  On the contrary, pastors should be “okay” with allowing a suffering person to yell and scream at God without feeling like they must provide the answers for God.  Psalm 89 clearly allows for this kind of response to suffering.  “The emphasis in Ps 89 had as a sole concern the Divine pledge of perpetuity to the Davidic dynasty as such and the glaring contrast between the promised ideal and the present reality” (2).  The “suppliant” [in Ps 89] wants YHWH to be mindful of the short span of human life as people often experience it,” (3) and so the writer asks: “How long?” and “Where is your hesed?” (4).  However, the Psalm ends with the scribe notably proclaiming: “Praise be to the LORD forever!  Amen and amen” (TNIV).  There can be little doubt that this ending was written in faith: a belief that even though it seemed as if God had forgotten His promise, God would, in the end, still keep His word.  This is authentic questioning rooted in faith and it must be allowed to happen in situations of suffering.  It is in these moments of questioning that God often reveals to the questioner the ways in which He has been gracious, merciful, compassionate, and loving.  Questioning can lead to knowing God and His ways.

Second, a pastor must pray, and lead prayer, in the name of Jesus Christ.  When a person prays in Jesus’ name they are evoking the fidelity of Jesus’ name: “It is because of Jesus — his covenant with us — that I ask these things” (5).  The New Testament clearly speaks to Jesus revealing and fulfilling the divine characteristics of “steadfast love” and “faithfulness” (John 1:14-17; Rom 15:8-9).  “To be consecrated or to be sanctified through the truth…is to possess steadfast devotion by means of the steadfast love of God communicated through Jesus Christ” (6).  Therefore it is in Jesus’ name that a Christian prays, yielding his or her will to the will of Christ and “making room” for the infilling of the Spirit.  Praying in this way is how a person knows and experiences God and, therefore, rests in the presence of the God who is hesed, emet, and emunah.  Those who suffer must pray to know and experience God’s dependable character as it is described in Scripture.

Third, a pastor should allow for grief.  “A theology without the tears of grief and without a sigh of hope, a theology that has lost sight of man [sic] in his distress and in his expectations, has also lost its real theme: God” (7).  “Strength is not built on easy stories with happy endings” (8).  Christians believe that the Davidic promises have been fulfilled in Jesus Christ (Acts 2:30; Rev 5); however, there will be no final closure — suffering will remain — until the second coming.  Grief, during this period of “now and not yet,” is unavoidable.  However, the beautiful truth in the midst of a person’s suffering is that God weeps alongside those who weep (John 11:35).

Fourth, a pastor should remind the person who suffers that suffering itself — pain and death — does not have the final say (1 Cor 15:35-58).  The best way to do this is simply by reading aloud Scripture and stories from the Tradition.  God is faithful: this is the truth found in the Hebrew Bible.  Jesus wins: this is the fullness of truth expressed in the inauguration of the Kingdom at the resurrection.  The finite experience of a person’s reality must be weighed against God’s cosmic and infinite movement of love and redemption.  This is not done to make a suffering person’s circumstances feel insignificant.  Rather, it is done to remind the suffering person of the overarching story of God, and that it is the God of that story who they have the incredible privilege of submitting their life to and knowing.  “Those who counterintuitively look beyond themselves for such stability find themselves fastened firmly to the most unassailable refuge possible — Jesus Christ, risen and vindicated” (9).

So there you have it.  Faith is not a currency, faith is not to be confused with positive thinking, and faith is not a guarantor of happiness.  Faith is from God and based in who God is and how He demonstrates His character.  To have faith is to have faith in God’s faithfulness and trust in God’s trustworthiness.  To quote one of my past professors: “It’s about God, stupid” (10).  Therefore, the primary aim of pastoral ministry to the suffering must not be to help them acquire more faith.  Rather, the aim must be to help those who suffer know God.  Faith comes from knowing God and experiencing Him — from knowing His steadfast love, grace, faithfulness, mercy, patience, and kindness.  It is this understanding of faith that must permeate a pastor’s interactions, words, and prayers with those who are suffering.  In 1 Cor 2:1-5, Paul is not specifically referring to interactions with suffering people, but his aim remains a prescription for all pastoral ministry.

When I came to you, brothers and sisters, I didn’t come preaching God’s secrets to you like I was an expert in speech or wisdom.  I had made up my mind not to think about anything while I was with you except Jesus Christ, and to preach him as crucified.  I stood in front of you with weakness, fear, and a lot of shaking.  My message and my preaching weren’t presented with convincing wise words but with a demonstration of the Spirit and of power. I did this so that your faith might not depend on the wisdom of people but on the power of God.

And so concludes this series.  Thoughts?

Footnotes:
(1) Ford, “Faith,” 90.
(2) Tate, Psalms 51-100, 418.
(3) Goldingay, Psalms 42-89, 668.
(4) Schafer, Psalms, 219.
(5) Knowles’ aptly notes the following about the New Testament phrase, “The faithfulness of Christ:” “The precise nuance implied by the word pistis when it refers to Christ has sparked intense academic debate.  Specifically, does it indicate ‘faith in Christ,’ as exercised by the faithful (which is the traditional reading of the phrase), the ‘faithfulness of Christ,’ which gives rise to saving trust, or even Christ’s own faith in God (that is, in such passages as Rom 3:22; Gal 2:16; 3:22; Phil 3:9; Jas 2:1; and Rev 14:12)?  The Hebrew antecedents can accommodate the full range of possibilities” (Knowles, The Unfolding, 160).
(6) Kuyper, “Grace and truth,” 3-19.  See John 17:19.
(7) Immink, Faith, 62.
(8) Schaefer, Psalms, 430.
(9) Ortlund, “The Insanity of Faith,” 269-88.
(10) Love ya, Michael!
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On having faith: Part 2 (The God of faith)

(This is part 2, which means that you should read part 1 if you haven’t yet.)

How do we define Christian faith?  This is what I’ll try to do now.

1. Faith is (In a Small Way) About Us

There is a human element to faith. Faith is “human reasoning paying attention to God” (1).  A person can believe in God.  This is perhaps the easiest aspect of faith to understand because it is the way faith is generally approached by Western contemporary Christians.  “In Western Christendom ‘faith’ is often understood to be primarily a matter of intellectual assent, ‘belief’ that something is the way it is claimed to be” (2).  Faith is also an active way of being.  Although the English language has no verb form for the word “faith,” Fowler rightly notes that “‘faith’ is an active way of being, committing, seeing, and interacting” (3).  Ideally, those who have faith choose to live their life in a way that reflects their beliefs.  However, the essence of faith lies elsewhere.  To speak of faith in relation to that which is ‘unseen’ suggests that the key to religious assent lies not in human action alone, but in the nature of God (4).

2. Faith is (Really) About God

Faith is not a personal affair; it is realized only through an encounter with God.  Though “divine initiative and human response are each essential to and inseparable from one another,” (5) “the point of gravity [in faith] is not with humans but with the God who comes to meet us with reconciliation and liberation” (6).  Faith is ultimately from, and based in, God; “its activation is of divine origin” (7).  Considering this realization one must ask: What is it about God that creates and sustains faith?

3. The God of Faith

Psalm 89 describes the God of Christian faith.  This is a God of “steadfast love,” “faithfulness,” covenant obligation, awesomeness, might, authority, power, dominion, creative enterprise, “righteousness,” “justice,” “countenance,” “glory,” protection, trustworthiness, and attentiveness (8).  This is the God of faith.  Psalm 89 presents a God who stands by His promise to be His people’s “shield” and provider.  Further, the inner-biblical dialogue between Ps 89:18 and Gen 15:1 cannot be overlooked.  The God of Ps 89 is the same God who initiated the covenant agreement, and upheld it, centuries earlier with Abraham.

Psalm 89:6–19 are verses that express the “cosmic rulership of Yahweh:” a rulership that is characterized by Yahweh’s faithfulness (9).  “The word [faithfulness] suggests a conscientious way of acting which reflects inner stability and consistency” (10).  One must also note that “the pair hesed and faithfulness (emunah and the synonym emet) appears seven times [in Psalm 89]: a fact that can hardly be accidental (11).  Parallelism confirms their synonymy and progression, and thus the connotation of hesed, translated “steadfast love,” is loyalty (12).  God, in Psalm 89, is obligated and committed to honouring His covenant.  Further, Ps 89 demonstrates that even in the case of confrontation (“Rahab” in v. 10) or disobedience (vv. 33-37), God’s fidelity to His covenant-promise and His people cannot be broken.  “Commitment and faithfulness are personalized [in Ps 89] as like aides serving YHWH, entities that come into YHWH’s presence to receive their orders” (13).

However, Ps 89 is also concerned with a (perceived) terrible failure of Yahweh to keep His end of the bargain; God’s fidelity is challenged by the writer.  The point of this, though, is not that God has been untrustworthy or unfaithful; He has not been.  “The questioning in the latter half of the Psalm does not defuse the proclamations made about Yahweh’s faithfulness and fidelity to the covenant in the first half of the Pslam” (14).  The declarations in the first half of the Psalm have been allowed to stand.  The Psalm reflects “the perplexing experience of the contradiction between old promises and understandings of the way of God and the actuality of the developments in history” (15).  However, “if we take our cue from the use of the formulaic question in Job 35:10, the question [in Ps 89:50] reflects trust that Yahweh will respond;” God will hold true to His covenant-promise.  “The world may little note or refuse to listen at all, but Yahweh-God hears the stories of his people’s pain and hurt” (16).  This is the God of faith.

4. How, Then, Does Faith Work?

Faith is putting one’s faith in the faithfulness of God; faith is putting one’s trust in the trustworthiness of God.  This, according to Gen 15:6 and Rom 4:3, is what Abraham did and he was counted as righteous.  This is the story of Heb 11.  Faith is ongoing dependance on a God who is dependable; it “is an answer, a response to a God who speaks, and a reply to God’s promise” (17).  “A life of faith is not just a matter of taking certain beliefs about God and his salvation to be true; it is also a matter of our trust in God and of God’s trustworthiness” (18).  Faith finds certainty and validity in who God is and what God does.  A Christian who has faith is a person who gives up control, who yields their will to the will — the faithfulness and trustworthiness — of God.  To “live by faith” means putting faith in a faithful God and acting faithfully in return.

5. What, Then, is the Point of Faith?

This is the crux of faith: A person grows in faith when they grow in their relationship with God.  To know God more is the ultimate aim of the Christian life — of Christian faith (Matt 22:37).

Thus in the New Testament as much as in the Hebrew Bible, to believe or have “faith” in God is not simply an act of intellectual assent or a single, determinative act of will.  Rather, it involves an ongoing relationship of trusting dependence on a dependable God, matched by faithfulness in conduct that mirrors God’s own fidelity (19).

“God is more than an object of our knowledge.  God is subject, co-subject, a person who acts intentionally, who makes himself known, and allows us to experience his presence.  Only in this way can we speak about faith as involvement, as a living relationship,” the point of which is to know the God who initiates the relationship (20).  Faith is a matter of active trust.  Faith is a matter of “getting to know” and experience God.  After all, God reveals Himself to those who would seek after Him (Exod 34:6-7).  Through all the circumstances of life — good, bad, and otherwise — faith is about knowing God more in and through each one.  Therefore it is only in knowing God that faith exists, is nurtured, and is worked out.

In my next post I’ll reflect on the ways in which this sort of faith can be nurtured and practiced in pastoral care.  In the meantime, any thoughts?

Footnotes:

(1) McIntosh, “Faith,” 142.
(2) Knowles, The Unfolding, 150.
(3) Fowler, “Faith/Belief,” 394.
(4) Knowles, The Unfolding, 150.
(5) Knowles, The Unfolding, 161.
(6) Immink, Faith, 18.
(7) Immink, Faith, 18.
(8) Words in quotations are found in Ps 89.  The words not in quotations are used to summarize themes and truths found in Ps 89.
(9) Tate, Psalms 51-100, 420.
(10) Tate, Psalms 51-100, 420.
(11) Tate, Psalms 51–100, 410.  “Seven” connotes fullness, completeness, and perfection.  Interestingly, “Jewish tradition observes that the three letters of this word (emet), aleph, mem, and tau, are in turn the first, middle, and the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet, suggesting that God’s emet — divine ‘truth’ and trustworthiness — encapsulates the whole meaning of Scripture” (Knowles, The Unfolding, 151).
(12) Schaefer, Psalms, 217-18.
(13) Goldingay, Psalms 42-89, 674.
(14) Goldingay, Psalms 42-89, 664.
(15) Tate, Psalms 51-100, 428.
(16) Tate, Psalms 51-100, 427, 430.
(17) Immink, Faith, 18.
(18) Immink, Faith, 26-7.
(19) Knowles, The Unfolding, 161.
(20) Immink, Faith, 39.

Bibliography

Fowler, J.W. “Faith/Belief.” In Dictionary of Pastoral Care and Counseling: 394–97.
Goldingay, John. Psalms 42–89. Psalms, 2. Tremper Longman III. Grand Rapids: Baker, 2007.
Immink, Gerrit F. Faith: A Practical Theological Reconstruction. Translated by Reinder Bruinsma. 2003. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 2005.
Knowles, Michael P. The Unfolding Mystery of the Divine Name: The God of Sinai in Our Midst. Downers Grove: IVP, 2012.
McIntosh, Mark. “Faith, Reason, and the Mind of Christ.” In Reason and the Reasons of Faith, edited by Paul J. Griffiths and Reinhard Hutter, 119–45. New York: T&T Clark, 2005.
Schaefer, Konrad. Psalms. Berit Olam: Studies in Hebrew Narrative and Poetry. David W. Cotter. Collegeville: Liturgical, 2001.
Tate, Marvin E. Psalms 51–100. Word Biblical Commentary, 20. David A. Hubbard and Glenn W. Barker. Dallas: Word, 1990.

On having faith: Part 1 (Three inappropriate ways to view faith)

I recently preached a mini-sermon which used Exodus 33 and Hebrews 11 as its Scriptural foundation.  The theme of the sermon was faith.

Working on that sermon and thinking on the topic of faith has prompted me to take some prior work which I did on the subject and share it with you for sharpening and feedback.  I’ve simplified and scaled-down my original writing which was submitted as an academic paper.  This, then, is the first of a few posts in which I will talk about what I think it means to have faith.

First things first.  Let’s dismantle some of the oft-used versions of faith.

Three ways that faith (and subsequently God) is misinterpreted:

1. Faith as Currency: The Vending Machine God

Contemporary Western culture is defined by consumerism: people get what they want and desire if they pay accordingly.  This ideology does not only apply to the acquisition of material goods, but it also applies to relationships.  A person will pay into a relationship to get out of it what they are owed.  Due to the influx of this ideology into the church, faith has been turned into a currency.  Actions that are associated with “proper” Christian living — for example: attending church services consistently, praying, believing, doing good deeds — are done to garner favour with God and to force Him into paying out.  If a person does the correct things, and enough of them, God must do what that person desires.  The dark side of this equation is that if a person does not do the correct things, or enough of them, or does the wrong things — sins (1) — his or her faith will fail in prompting God to pay out.

Faith, in this understanding, paints God as a vending machine.  A vending machine will only pay out if the correct currency, and enough of it, is paid in.  Likewise, if not enough currency is put in the vending machine, or the wrong currency is used, the vending machine will not work.  Considering this representation of God, God functions correctly or does not function at all based on consumer principles: Did the person have enough, and the right kind of, faith to make God “work?”  This image of God is hardly consistent with the God of Scripture.  The God of Scripture will not be directed or manipulated by anyone or anything; God functions on His own terms (2).  Further, God’s terms are not based on consumer principles; the God of Scripture is a God of grace and mercy (Exod 34:6-7).  The God of Scripture acts the way He wants to (or has to) based on who He is.

2. Faith as Positive Thinking: The Non-Existent God

Some Christians often confuse faith with the power of positive thinking.  This way of understanding faith is another way the church has adopted a culturally celebrated idea: getting things accomplished through the power of self.  However, there is a difference between faith and trusting in trust (3).  Faith cannot be confused with the self-powered idea presented in the story-line of, The Little Engine that Could (4).

Faith healing is where this misinterpretation of faith is most clearly seen.  If a person can gain enough faith — if a person can believe enough or “pray in faith” enough — she or he will be healed (5).  The power in faith healing is in the faith of the person needing healing or the person attempting to be the healer.  Thus, faith healing is an attempt on an individual’s part to be in control.  Those who subscribe to this idea of faith forget that “the essential ingredient for faith lies not in the ‘believer,’ the one who experiences trust, but rather in a God who proves trustworthy” (6).   It is tremendously important to realize that in all the recorded instances of healing in the Gospels, faith is the goal of healing; healing is not the goal of faith (7).

God is mostly irrelevant and nonexistent in this form of faith.  An individual’s confidence in the power of their own belief is all that is necessary.  That God’s name is ever evoked in this understanding of faith is, sadly, comical.  In contrast, the God presented in Scripture demands that He be at the forefront of all His people’s actions and beliefs (e.g., Exod 20:1-11).  Faith cannot be turned into a god.

3. Faith as a Guarantor of Happiness: The Sadistic God

Some Christians believe that faith is a medicine that makes experiences of suffering change into times of happiness.  If a Christian is not happy, the reason is obvious: they simply do not have enough faith.  Faith, in this misunderstanding, is the knowledge that all things — including times of suffering — happen because God willed them to be and therefore they must be good.  All one must do is look at Christian sympathy or “get well soon” cards to observe the “faith as a guarantor of happiness” misinterpretation.  Jeremiah 29:11, Rom 8:28, and Phil 4:1314 have all been taken out of context to promote a faith where the trials and suffering of an individual are a part of God’s “good and happy” plan for their life (8).

God, in this understanding of faith, is sadistic.  Throughout Scripture, however, God is shown to be caring, compassionate, and heartbroken, if not angry, at the sight of suffering and pain (9).  There is an important distinction that must be made to appreciate why this form of faith is incorrect: joy and fortitude exist in a Christian because of the Christian’s relationship with God, not because, as a Christian, they get to experience situations of suffering (10).

These views are not only incorrect, but more dangerously, they present God as someone He is not.  Donald Miller rightly suggests: “There are two essential problems with believing God is somebody He isn’t.  The first problem is that it wrecks your life, and the second is that it makes God look like an idiot” (11).  Not to mention the fact that these misinterpretations of faith blindly disobey the first commandment: i.e, they are practices of idolatry.

What do you think?  Have you heard these misinterpretations in church?  Have you lived these misinterpretations?  Have you anything to add or challenge?

In my next post I’ll attempt to present what I think is an appropriate biblical theology of faith.  (If you want a head start, check out Psalm 89.)

Footnotes:
(1) If purity — being sin-free — is a prerequisite for faith to “work,” then no one stands a chance.  This kind of thinking completely ignores the fact that, “while we were still sinners, Christ died for us” (Rom 5:8 TNIV, emphasis added).  Further, “The negative counterpart to the idea of religious faith as a prerequisite for healing is the thought that suffering is a consequence of sin.  See John 9:3: Sin and suffering cannot be viewed in a one-to-one relationship.  John 5:14 and 1 Cor 11:30 suggest that sin can be linked to the cause of person’s suffering, but these circumstances cannot be viewed as a universal prescription.  Further, healing does not necessarily indicate a “commendable religious faith.”  See Matt 12:9–14; Mark 1:29–31; John 5:5–13 (Grindheim, “Everything is possible,” 11–17).
(2) Humanity’s interaction with God cannot be self-determined; when an attempt is made to try to do so, it is sin.  God did not stand in front of Adam and ask: “So what would you like to be called?”  God determined — He named and created — Adam’s identity and thus set forth the parameters of their relationship (Gen 1:27; 2:7).  When Moses asked God to name Himself (Exod 3:13–15), God responded by saying, “I AM.”  In essence, God was replying: “I am beyond your ability to name and control.”  Therefore, when faith is viewed as a currency by Christians they are treading in dangerous water.
(3) For example, people can believe as much as they want that a rock will tell them the meaning of life, but a rock will not do so; it cannot do so.
(4) While attempting to pull a train up a steep hill the Little Engine chants: “I-think-I-can, I-think-I-can, I-think-I-can.”  Because of his belief in himself the Little Engine succeeds and congratulates himself by chanting: “I-thought-I-could, I-thought-I-could.”  The story demonstrates a commonly held belief in contemporary culture: “I can do anything if I put my mind to it and believe in myself.”  This belief has obvious, and serious, flaws.
(5) Matthew 9:29 and Mark 5:34 provide ample opportunity for bad exegesis (Grindheim, “Everything is possible,” 11–17).  Mark 11:22–25 must be used to interpret these passages.  “Prayer is unlimited when directed in faith to the Almighty Father.  However, it remains subordinate to the will of God.”  For example, see Jesus in the garden of Gethsemane: Jesus wants out, but submits to the will of his Father (Kuyper, “Grace and truth,” 3–19).  God’s will is ultimately that all people would love Him and love their fellow brother and sister (Matt 22:37–29).  Therefore all things, including answers to prayer, are bent to accomplish this end.
(6) Knowles, The Unfolding Mystery, 151.
(7) Grindheim, “Everything is possible,” 11–17.  Grindheim notes: “The power to heal is indicative of the true nature of Jesus Christ: he is the Son of God.”  See John 20:31.  The healing miracles in the Gospels show the significance of Jesus, not of the sick person’s faith.  The fact that Jesus heals people with suspect faith (see Mark 4:35–45; 6:45–52) aptly illustrates this point.
(8) These passages do, at first glance, appear difficult to comprehend, especially during times of suffering.  However, a brief exegesis of each provides information on their purpose and context.  Romans 8:28 must be understood as an eschatological declaration.  The passage does not mean that all things work for the good of all people, or that all things that come to believers are good, or that all things believers experience are results of the will of God.  The remainder of the passage clarifies the verse: the goal, or “good,” specified is ultimately to be conformed into the image of Jesus Christ.  In Jesus “the good” is fully represented because Jesus fully represents God’s will (Hiebert, “Romans 8:28–29,” 170–83).  Jeremiah 29:11 must be read within the context of Israel’s exile.  The plans God had for Israel were bound to Israel’s mission: to be a showcase of God’s goodness and love to the nations surrounding them so that those nations would also know God.  This passage, although it makes for a nice greeting card, has nothing to do with the way it is often used in contemporary church culture.  As for Philippians 4:13, one scholar puts it this way: “Translations that make it sound like Paul could do anything and that nothing was beyond his powers are misleading to the point of being false (ASV, KJV, NASB, NEB, NIV, RSV).”  The proper way to read this passage is as follow: “I can do all such things (what has just been described by the author: good and bad times in the context of living the mission of Jesus Christ) in union with the One who continually infuses me with strength” (Hawthorne, Philippians, 193).  1 Peter is also regrettably used in ways in which the letter was not intended to be used.  See De Silva, An Introduction, 852.
(9) See Exod 3:9; 22:23; Ps 10:14; John 3:16; and 11:17–31 among many examples.  Suffering is a result of the fall.  God’s will is not that creation would suffer.  Suffering is a reality of life brought on by humanity’s “closing the door” on God.  When humanity chose — and continues to choose — to reject God, suffering entered the world.
(10) It would be asinine to suggest that Jesus enjoyed going to, and experiencing, the cross.  It was Jesus’ relationship with God that compelled him, even through suffering, towards the cross.  See Luke 22:42.
(11) Miller, Searching, 21.
Bibliography:
De Silva, David A. An Introduction to the New Testament: Contexts, Methods, and Ministry Formation. Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2004.
Grindheim, Sigurd. “‘Everything is Possible for One Who Believes:’ Faith and Healing in the NT.” Trinity Journal 26:1 (2005) 11–17.
Hawthorne, Gerald F. Philippians. Word Biblical Commentary, 43. Bruce M. Metzger. Dallas: Word, 1983.
Hiebert, D Edmond. “Romans 8:28–29 and the Assurance of the Believer.” Bibliotheca Sacra 148:590 (1991) 170–83.
Knowles, Michael P. The Unfolding Mystery of the Divine Name: The God of Sinai in Our Midst. Downers Grove: IVP Academic, 2012.
Kuyper, Lester Jacob. “Grace and Truth: An Old Testament Description of God, and its Use in the Johannine Gospel.” Interpretation 18:1 (1964) 3–19.
Miller, Donald. Searching For God Knows What. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 2004.